In the most revered and authoritative of the Chinese Scriptures, the Shu-King, or Holy Book, we find a theo-philosophy based on a Supreme Power, _Tai-Ki_, or Heaven, which is pure reason, or the embodiment of the laws and forces of nature acting under the pressure of blind destiny. 643. Its immediate effects, however, the conveniency, the pleasure, and the gaiety of the people who live in it, being all agreeable, and suggesting to the imagination a thousand agreeable ideas, that faculty generally rests upon them, and seldom goes further in tracing its more distant consequences. Take out the musk, and clean the box with soap and water as carefully as it is possible. The foregoing applies as much to the aggregate moral consciousness of a community in different stages of civilization, or in varying states of emotional abnormality, as to the individual conscience. Fragments, more or less complete, of these traditions have been preserved. As pointed out in the chapter on the subject, reflective humour grows out of a mutual approximation of two tendencies which seem to the unexamining person to be directly antagonistic, namely, the wholly serious turn for wise reflection and the playful bent towards laughter. On the other hand the establishment, construction and opening of the 96th Street Branch were treated by the surrounding residents with supreme indifference. The Planet, they supposed, was attached to the college essay about yourself examples reflective circumference, and whirled round the centre of this little Sphere, at the same time that it was carried round the earth by the movement of the great Sphere. When those actions, on the contrary, which are commonly supposed to proceed from a selfish motive, are discovered to have arisen from a benevolent one, it greatly enhances our sense of their merit. Even the excess of this disposition, however, renders a man interesting to every body. This seemed to bespeak a versatility of talent and a plastic power, which in the first instance had been called in question. How far it can surpass itself in cruelty and fraud! Does the dweller in the community turn as naturally to the library for intellectual help as he does to the church for religious consolation? The ostentatious sorrow of widows has, for a like reason, been suspected of insincerity. A trophy of the same kind, composed of the instruments of surgery, of dissecting and amputation-knives, of saws for cutting the bones, of trepanning instruments, &c., would be absurd and shocking. The ancients seem to have had little or nothing of what is properly called instrumental music, or of music composed not to be sung by the voice, but to be played upon instruments, and both their wind and stringed instruments seem to have served only as an accompaniment and direction to the voice. Every good librarian will wish to create machinery to put the right man in the right place in his force, and to drop him out if he goes wrong; but it must be his own machinery, not that of someone else, and must be designed to aid him, not to hamper him. The physiological reasons adduced are sometimes funny enough: for the author relies on Galen and the doctrine of “spirits”. In many communities it is being looked to now as such a center in matters having no direct connection with books. Stories of wild adventure from _Gil Blas_ to _Tom Jones_ are “humorous” to the multitude in this sense. _S._ Well: you complain, however, that things of the greatest use in reality are not always of the greatest importance in an imaginary and romantic point of view? The degree of their unwholesomeness, too, seems to be pretty much in proportion to that of their disagreeableness. Heat and cold being felt by almost every part of the human body, have commonly been ranked along with solidity and resistance, among the qualities which are the objects of Touch. They invented, therefore, for each of them, a new Circle, called the Equalizing Circle, from whose centre they should all appear perfectly equable: that is, they so adjusted the velocities college essay about yourself examples reflective of these Spheres, as that, though the revolution of each of them would appear irregular when surveyed from its own centre, there should, however, be a point comprehended within its circumference, from whence its motions should appear to cut off, in equal times, equal portions of the Circle, of which that point was supposed to be the centre. If you would hope to succeed, you must describe to him the conveniency and arrangement of the different apartments in their palaces; you must explain to him the propriety of their equipages, and point out to him the number, the order, and the different offices of all their attendants. All the others seem to speak tongues with no genetic relationship, at least none indicated by etymology. Throughout all natural history, the expressions are the less significant the more general or common they are; and a distinct knowledge of any being requires a study of its peculiarities.’ Page 275. They are the wild displays of feeling, without understanding. Volpone’s life, on the other hand, is bounded by the scene in which it is played; in fact, the life is the life of the scene and is derivatively the life of Volpone; the life of the character is inseparable from the life of the drama. The gleeful outburst is apt to occur, too, later on when a child first achieves the feat—half-wonderful, half-amusing—of walking, of running and of jumping. In these expanding processes of jollity or gleefulness we may detect the beginnings of more specialised forms of laughing enjoyment. While the great objects of nature thus pass in review before them, many things occur in an order to which they have not been accustomed. Then toil would become pleasure, and the hours that now drag heavily would flit on wings. The cubit, _chumay_, was measured from the point of the elbow to the extremities of the fingers. We admire and entirely go along with the magnanimous effort which he makes for this purpose. The revival of the Roman law in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and the introduction of torture as an unfailing expedient in doubtful cases did much to influence the secular tribunals against all ordeals. The mind makes, at some period or other, one Herculean effort, and the rest is mechanical. These differences are roughly accounted for by saying that the proportions of gravity and gaiety, of serious reflection and playful fancy vary indefinitely. As is implied in what has been said above about the laughter of “good spirits,” and as we shall see more clearly presently, there are cases where laughter takes on the appearance of a spontaneous or “automatic” group of movements. They even convey the power of exciting that Sensation to all the other bodies that surround us. They may be filled in, and by Shakespeare they are filled in, by much detail or many shifting aspects; but a clear and sharp and simple form remains through these—though it would be hard to say in what the clarity and sharpness and simplicity of Hamlet consists. This is a true copy, nor is it taken from one sitting, or a single subject.—An author now-a-days, to succeed, must be something more than an author,—a nobleman, or rich plebeian: the simple literary character is not enough. In the Specific Essence of each object itself, they distinguished two parts; one of which was peculiar and characteristical of the one class of things of which that particular object was an individual, the other was common to it with some other higher classes of things. If we apply what is certainly a very fair test, to wit: the uses to which a language is and can be put, I cannot see that a well-developed American tongue, such as the Aztec or the Algonkin, in any way falls short of, say French or English. We should welcome all these as adjuncts to our own business, and when we have mastered that business thoroughly perhaps we may take them up each on its own account. It is, after all, our world, and, so far as we know, our only one; and a side-glance at the requirements of a practical wisdom may suffice to bring the smile which instantly corrects a disposition to decry it overmuch. The real sound, however, the sensation in our ear, can never be heard or felt any where but in our ear, it can never change its place, it is incapable of motion, and can come, therefore, neither from the right nor from the left, neither from before nor from behind us. Among the candidates for excellence in those different arts, the anxiety about the public opinion is always much greater in the former than in the latter. The implications of customary vice are simply reflections of life as the author knew it. From this to the rack and estrapade the step was easily taken, and was not long delayed. The inspired writers would not surely have talked so frequently or so strongly of the wrath and anger of God, if they had regarded every degree of those passions as vicious and evil, even in so weak and imperfect a creature as man. A very young child has no self-command; but, whatever are its emotions, whether fear, or grief, or anger, it endeavours always, by the violence of his outcries, to alarm, as much as it can, the attention of its nurse or of its parents.
These sentiments are no doubt enhanced and enlivened by the perception of the beauty or deformity which results from this utility or hurtfulness. The face of the lady has nothing very remarkable in it, but that it may be said to be the very perfection of the English female face. To try to go behind tradition was to challenge its sufficiency, and so to put forward an absurd paradox. Here we have a mental attitude at once like and unlike that of our children; for the latter are conservative of tradition and disposed to accept authority, but at the same time very energetic in pushing back inquiry into “what came before”. It is this fluctuation and vain recollection, together with the emotion or movement of the spirits that they excite, which constitute the sentiment properly called college essay about yourself examples reflective _Wonder_, and which occasion that staring, and sometimes that rolling of the eyes, that suspension of the breath, and that swelling of the heart, which we may all observe, both in ourselves and others, when wondering at some new object, and which are the natural symptoms of uncertain and undetermined thought. The old one-eyed Duke of Queensbury is another example that I might quote. I hardly know how to insist on a point so plain in itself that it cannot be made plainer by any kind of reasoning. A sage philosopher, who was not a very wise man, said, that he should like very well to be young again, if he could take his experience along with him. A mon avis, une mystification sans grande portee et _much ado about nothing_.” I have but an indifferent opinion of the prose-style of poets: not that it is not sometimes good, nay, excellent; but it is never the better, and generally the worse from the habit of writing verse. He was a wretched hand, but a fine person of a man, and a great coxcomb; and on his strutting up and down before the portrait when it was done with a prodigious air of satisfaction, she observed, ‘If he was so pleased with the copy, he might have the original.’ This Astley was a person of magnificent habits and a sumptuous taste in living; and is the same of whom the anecdote is recorded, that when some English students walking out near Rome were compelled by the heat to strip off their coats, Astley displayed a waistcoat with a huge waterfall streaming down the back of it, which was a piece of one of his own canvases that he had converted to this purpose. lib. What interests him is not so much the attainment of this piece of knowledge, as the perfection of the machine which enables him to attain it. If in adventuring to lay this little Piece at your Highnesses Feet, and humbly beg your Royal Protection of it, I have presum’d too far, be pleas’d to impute it to your own, most gracious Goodness, the knowledge of which encourag’d me. _R._ Your mode of arriving at conclusions is very different, I confess, from the one to which I have been accustomed, and is too wild and desultory for me to follow it. In spite of them all, there is a wonderful family likeness among tribes of American origin. After words and their commoner forms have begun to grow familiar, new and odd-sounding words, especially names, are apt to be greeted with laughter. The trouble may be minimized by co-operation, but it still exists. It is difficult—it is perhaps the supreme difficulty of criticism—to make the facts generalize themselves; but Mr. Next to these we should probably place the Chipeway pictography, as preserved on their _meda_ sticks, bark records, and _adjidjiatig_ or grave-posts. That the discretion lodged in the tribunals was habitually and frightfully abused is only too evident, when von Rosbach deems it necessary to reprove, as a common error of the judges of his time, the idea that the use of torture was a matter altogether dependent upon their pleasure, “as though nature had created college essay about yourself examples reflective the bodies of prisoners for them to lacerate at will.” Thus it was an acknowledged rule that when guilt could be satisfactorily proved by witnesses, torture was not admissible; yet Damhouder feels it necessary to condemn the practice of some judges, who, after conviction by sufficient evidence, were in the habit of torturing the convict, and boasted that they never pronounced sentence of death without having first extorted a confession. Moreover, the practice was continued which we have seen habitual in the Chatelet of Paris in the fourteenth century, whereby, after a man had been duly convicted of a capital crime, he was tortured to extract confessions of any other offences of which he might be guilty; and as late as 1764, Beccaria lifts his voice against it as a still existing abuse, which he well qualifies as senseless curiosity, impertinent in the wantonness of its cruelty. Martin Bernhardi, writing in 1705, asserts that this torture after confession and conviction was also resorted to in order to prevent the convict from appealing from the sentence. So, although a man who freely confessed a crime could not be tortured, according to the general principle of the law, still, if in his confession he adduced mitigating circumstances, he could be tortured in order to force him to withdraw them; and, moreover, if he were suspected of having accomplices and refused to name them, he could be tortured as in the _question prealable_ of the French courts. Yet the accusation thus obtained was held to be of so little value that it only warranted the arrest of the parties incriminated, who could not legally be tortured without further evidence. In the face of all this it seems like jesting mockery to find these grim legists tenderly suggesting that the prisoner should be tortured only in the morning lest his health should suffer by subjecting him to the question after a full meal. If the practice of the criminal courts had been devised with the purpose of working injustice under the sacred name of law it could scarce have been different. If it should be answered that these restrictions and modifications of the principle of self-love are a necessary consequence of the nature of a thinking being, then I say that it is nonsense to talk of mechanical self-love in connection with a power of reflection, that is, a mind capable of perceiving the consequences of things beyond itself, and of being affected by them. Here _na_ is a demonstrative particle like the Aztec _in_, and _mathia_ is a compound _pa_, to sell, and _thehna_, charcoal. ?? When I say therefore that the human mind is naturally benevolent, this does not refer to any innate abstract idea of good in general, or to an instinctive desire of general indefinite unknown good but to the natural connection between the idea of happiness and the desire of it, independently of any particular attachment to the person who is to feel it. L. Yet a thing and the _cant_ about it are not the same. We have done those things that we ought not to have done and we have left undone those things that we ought to have done; and we are all miserable sinners. It ought to contain many more, but there is perhaps no other single poem which it would be an error to omit. The heroes of ancient and modern history, who are remembered with the most peculiar favour and affection, are many of them those who, in the cause of truth, liberty, and justice, have perished upon the scaffold, and who behaved there with that ease and dignity which became them. Even some of our dances, which are said to have been originally imitative, have, in the way in which we practise them, almost ceased to be so. Would you awaken the industry of the man who seems almost dead to ambition, it will often be to no purpose to describe to him the happiness of the rich and the great; to tell him that they are generally sheltered from the sun and the rain, that they are seldom hungry, that they are seldom cold, and that they are rarely exposed to weariness, or to want of any kind. Nature, in this case, has rendered the pain, not only more pungent than the opposite and correspondent pleasure, but she has rendered it so in a much greater than the ordinary degree. Hence, if we agree that fines are undesirable we must regard their abolition as an unattainable ideal. Lipps supposes, from one part of it to another, but from the present whole as oddly and wrongly composed to some other whole as rightly composed. Thus, for instance, there are many things with which we are contented, so as not to feel an uneasy desire after more, but yet we have a much higher relish of others. It is in the same manner that we judge of the productions of all the arts which address themselves to the imagination. Yet the fury of his own temper may be such, that had this been the first time in which he considered such an action, he would undoubtedly have determined it to be quite just and proper, and what every impartial spectator would approve of. We see then that the strata representing gradations of culture are largely independent of commonly recognised divisions. C—— a very clever man, with a great command of language, but that he feared he did not always affix very precise ideas to the words he used.’ After he was gone, we had our laugh out, and went on with the argument on the nature of Reason, the Imagination, and the Will. It is this intense personal character which, I think, gives the superiority to Titian’s portraits over all others, and stamps them with a living and permanent interest. Whatever the reader thinks fine in books (and Mr. I see no comparison between his prose writing and Lord Byron’s poems. I say nearly all; for there is still a feeling among many people that it is not good administration to abandon so large a percentage of our books to thieves. It is not sufficiently realized that many so-called geniuses, imaginative, histrionic and poetical, can never deserve the highest place, for they are the sounding-boards of the world; their superlative quality is receptivity; they are instruments, not players; they voice the great masses, and they share with publicists and politicians a desire to be incriminated in the movement of their surroundings. She did not know–poor girl–that her eyes were not perfectly normal. Can we doubt that the character and thoughts have remained as much the same all that time; have borne the same image and superscription; have grown with the growth, and strengthened with the strength? It is remarkable that the French, who are a lively people and fond of shew and striking images, should be able to read and hear with such delight their own dramatic pieces, which abound in nothing but general maxims, and vague declamation, never embodying any thing, and which would appear quite tedious to an English audience, who are generally considered as a dry, dull, plodding people, much more likely to be satisfied with formal descriptions and grave reflections. Secondly, Those Sensations have no figure. The library schools aim, and very properly so, at occupying the same position toward the library profession that the medical and law schools do toward the medical and legal professions. The imagination, when acquainted with the law by which any motion is accelerated or retarded, can follow and attend to it more easily, than when at a loss, and, as it were, wandering in uncertainty with regard to the proportion which regulates its varieties; the discovery of this analogy therefore, no doubt, rendered the system of Kepler more agreeable to the natural taste of mankind: it, was, however, an analogy too difficult to be followed, or comprehended, to render it completely so. The amiable virtue of humanity requires, surely, a sensibility much beyond what is possessed by the rude vulgar of mankind. Not only grief and joy, but all the other passions, are more violent, when opposite extremes succeed each other. Only when the poets forget the stilted symbols which once were real and discover that they themselves are surrounded by realities worthy of verse does poetry again become popular. Nothing can be worse than the common practice in public institutions of allowing idle visitors to amuse themselves by listening to, and of course encouraging, their conversation on the subject of their individual insanity.—When we do notice these delusions, and it must be seldom, it must be a very important and grave matter; and we must exert all our eloquence, and call forth the most overpowering arguments against the folly, wickedness and direful consequences of encouraging these delusions. Such considerations, however, although contributory, do not, of themselves, decide the question with which we are here concerned, namely, What is the real meaning and what the authority of “conscience,” or of that mental act which takes place in our minds when we call certain conduct “right” and certain conduct “wrong”? But the finest face will not carry a man far, unless it is set upon an active body, and a stout pair of shoulders. Mac-Intosh is no doubt a man of a very clear understanding, of an imposing elocution, a very able disputant, and a very metaphysical lawyer, but by no means a profound metaphysician, not quite a Berkeley in subtlety of distinction. When superiority is lacking in a clearly recognisable basis of reason, its ridicule of inferiors can only have its source in a pride which may be, and often is, of the most foolish. In the ancient laws of the Alamanni, when there was controversy as to the ownership of land, the contestants brought to the court of the district some earth and branches of trees from the disputed property. If, as has already been observed, I see a stroke aimed, and just ready to fall upon the leg, or arm, of another person, I naturally shrink and draw back my own leg, or my own arm: and when it does fall, I feel it in some measure, and am hurt by it as well as the sufferer. What the Calvinist suffered in Flanders, he inflicted in Holland; what the Catholic enforced in Italy, he endured in England; nor did either of them deem that he was forfeiting his share in the Divine Evangel of peace on earth and goodwill to men.